The Four Noble Truths of Buddhism
What is Truth?
Truth (Sacca) Satya in Sanskrit which means an undeniable fact. According to Buddha, there are four such truths pertaining to beings. Buddha himself discovered the Four Noble Truths of Buddhism by his own intuitive knowledge. These truths exist before the rise of Buddha. It is a Buddha that reveals them to the misleading world. They are eternal Truths. So cannot change with time. The Buddha was not indebted to anyone for his realization of them. Regarding this truth, Buddha himself said: “They were unheard before”.
What is the Four Noble Truths of Buddhism?
These Four Noble Truths of Buddhism is the main foundation of Buddhism. This Dhamma is summarizing in the universal moral Law. The Truths about the universal control of suffering about its Origin. Its Extinction, and the Path leading to its extinction.
1. The Truth of Suffering
This first Noble Truth of Buddhism deals with dukkha. Dukkha means suffering or sorrow and difficult to endure (du – difficult, kha – to endure). Dukkha is an abstract truth in the sense of “contemptible” (du) and “emptiness” (kha). The world rests on suffering. Therefore it is disgraceful. The world is devoid of any reality. Hence it is empty or void. Dukkha, therefore, means contemptible void.
The truth of all conscious and reactive life is suffering. They find no real happiness in this world. Which misleads mankind with imaginary pleasures. All are subject to birth and consequently to decay, disease, and finally to death. No one is exempt from these four inevitable causes of suffering. This composition body itself is a cause of suffering. They come into existence and passing away of all are suffering. Association with the disliked is suffering. Separation from the liked is suffering. Not to get what one wishes is suffering. Which means “Dukkha”.
Real happiness is found within. It is not to be defined in terms of wealth, power, honors or conquests. If such worldly assets are violently or unfairly obtain. Misdirect or view with attachment. They will be a source of pain. Sorrow for the owners. According to the Buddha non-attachment of material pleasure is a greater bliss.
This first truth of suffering depends on various aspects of life. To be carefully analyzed and examined. This is because all living existence bears the three characteristics of transitory, disappointment. And the absence of any real enduring ego-entity.
The cause of this suffering is craving or attachment.
2. The Truth of the Cause of Suffering
The truth of the cause of suffering is Ignorance. Conjoined with the craving for existence (Sankharas ) because they are considered good. This is the cause of suffering. Such craving is a powerful mental force. Latent in all. The chief cause of most of the ills of life. This craving seeks delight for sensual pleasure and for existence. The cause of this painful round of rebirths is craving. This is the thirst for the enjoyment of pleasure of the senses. Craving generates mental energy, the strongest force in the universe. This craving force is associate with ignorance of the nature of reality.
The second truth, about the “Origin of Suffering”. It teaches that all suffering is rooted in selfish craving and ignorance. Both suffering and craving eradicated by Middle way. Enunciated by the Buddha himself. And attains the supreme bliss of Nibbana.
3. The Truth of the Cessation of Suffering
The “Extinction of Suffering” can be brought to an end only with the attainment of Nibbana. The Third Noble Truth is the complete cessation of suffering. which is called Nibbana. The ultimate Goal of Buddhism. It is achieve by the total eradication of all forms of craving.
Nibbana is the ceasing of the overflowing stream of the mental and physical processes. It is the cessation of desire. The total destruction of this very craving, the deliverance from it. Craving and ignorance are eliminated altogether. And with them the psychic elements of grasping and attaching also eliminate. It is the end of suffering and the unchanging reality. All suffering will vanish and liberation from the continuity of existence (Samsara) be attained.
The Third noble truth points out that, through the cessation of all selfish craving. And all ignorance of necessity all suffering comes to an end. No new rebirth will take place.
4. The Truth of Path to the Cessation of Suffering
The Truth of the Path to the cessation of suffering can attain by following the Noble Eightfold Path to perfection. That shows the way to reach the goal. This unique path is the only straight route that leads to Nibbana. The personal intuitive of cessation is the eightfold path of mental or spiritual development. Each term has exact ethical and psychological significance.
They are not simple vague, unformulated ideals. But are minutely and systematically delineate modes of thought and behavior. Taken all together they constitute the three essentials of spiritual development, Morality (Sila), concentration (Samadhi) and wisdom (Panna). This is the way to the cessation of suffering.
Conclusion about Four Noble Truths of Buddhism
Therefore Buddha arises or not. These four noble truths of Buddhism exist in the universe. Buddhas only reveal these truths. Which lie hidden in the dark abyss of times. The Dhamma may simply be called the law of cause and effect. This law embraces the entire body of the teachings of the Buddha. Craving is the cause of sorrow. Sorrow is the effect of carving. Adherence to the middle path is the cause of Nibbana. Nibbana is the effect of adherence to the Middle Path.